what are loans

What are Loans

Loans are financial arrangements in which one party, typically a lender such as a bank or financial institution, provides a certain amount of money to another party, usually a borrower, with the understanding that it will be paid back over time, usually with interest.

What is Interest

Interest is the cost of borrowing money or the compensation received for lending money. It is typically expressed as a percentage of the loan amount or principal. When you borrow money through a loan or use a credit card, the lender charges interest on the amount you owe. This interest is essentially the fee you pay for the privilege of borrowing the money. Some things to consider:

Interest Rates:

Interest rates can vary based on several factors, such as the type of loan, the borrower's creditworthiness, prevailing market conditions, and the duration of the loan. The interest is calculated based on the principal amount and the agreed-upon interest rate. For example, if you borrow $1,000 at an interest rate of 5%, you would owe $50 in interest over the course of a year.

Interest Calculations:

Interest can be calculated in different ways, including simple interest and compound interest. Simple interest is calculated only on the principal amount, while compound interest takes into account both the principal and any accumulated interest. It's important to understand the terms and conditions of a loan, including the interest rate, to accurately assess the total cost of borrowing and make informed financial decisions.



When you cosign a loan, it means you are agreeing to take on equal responsibility for repaying the loan alongside the primary borrower. In essence, you are acting as a guarantor for the loan. By cosigning, you are legally obligated to make loan payments if the primary borrower fails to do so. Some things to consider:

When to Cosign:

Cosigning is typically done when the primary borrower may not qualify for a loan on their own due to insufficient credit history, low income, or other factors. Your role as a cosigner provides additional security for the lender, as they can pursue repayment from you if the primary borrower defaults.

Risks involved:

It's important to understand that cosigning a loan carries risks. If the primary borrower fails to make payments, the lender can come after you for the full amount, including any late fees or penalties.

The loan will also impact your credit score and borrowing capacity, as it becomes part of your financial history. It's crucial to carefully consider the financial implications and trust the borrower's ability to repay the loan before cosigning.


Collateralizing a loan involves providing a valuable asset as security or collateral for the loan. The collateral serves as a form of protection for the lender in case the borrower defaults on the loan. If the borrower is unable to repay the loan as agreed, the lender has the right to seize the collateral and sell it to recover the outstanding debt. Some things to consider:

Types of Collateral:

Collateral can take various forms depending on the type of loan. Common examples include real estate (such as a home or property), vehicles, savings accounts, investments, or valuable possessions like jewelry or artwork. The lender assesses the value of the collateral and typically lends an amount that is a percentage of that value.

Why it matters:

By accepting collateral, lenders reduce their risk because they have an asset they can claim in the event of default. Collateral can also provide borrowers with the opportunity to obtain loans they might not otherwise qualify for, as it offers additional security to the lender.

It's important to note that if a borrower defaults and the collateral is seized, it may not always cover the full amount of the loan. In such cases, the lender can pursue the borrower for any remaining balance. Additionally, borrowers should carefully consider the potential loss of the collateral and the implications of defaulting before using it to secure a loan.


Loan amortization works by spreading out the repayment of a loan over time through a series of regular payments, typically monthly. Each payment consists of both principal and interest, with the allocation between the two varying over the life of the loan. Here's how it works:


The original amount borrowed. Each payment includes a portion that goes towards reducing the principal balance.


The cost of borrowing money, calculated as a percentage of the remaining balance. In the early stages of the loan, a significant portion of each payment goes towards paying interest.

Amortization Schedule:

A table or chart that outlines each payment throughout the loan term, breaking down the amount allocated to principal, interest, and the remaining loan balance after each payment.

Gradual Reduction:

Over time, the portion of each payment allocated to interest decreases, while the portion allocated to principal increases. This results in a gradual reduction of the loan balance.

Total Repayment:

By the end of the loan term, all principal and interest payments are made, and the loan balance is fully repaid.

Loan amortization allows borrowers to repay their debt in manageable installments while ensuring that the lender receives interest income over the term of the loan. It also provides transparency regarding how each payment contributes to reducing the outstanding balance and ultimately repaying the loan.